Among the many vascular plant species restricted to Ethiopia are the orchids Holothrix unifolia and Habenaria vollesenii, a red hot poker Kniphofia foliosa, a giant lobelia Lobelia rhynchopetalum, Cibirhiza spiculata, an aroid Amorphophallus gomboczianus, Gladiolus balensis, a spurge Euphorbia makallensis, Aloe welmelensis, Carduus macracanthus,Impatiens rothii, Sedum baleensis, Echinops kebericho, Senecio nanus, Erythrina brucei, Helichrysum gofense, Urtica simensis, and the recently discovered Acacia fumosa. Endemic genera include Chiliocephalum, Hypagophytum, Nephrophyllum,Afrovivella, and Leptagrostis.

Portions of Ethiopia are included in the Eastern Afromontane and the Horn of Africa biodiversity hotspots. Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Ethiopian Montane Moorlands and the Ethiopian Montane Grasslands and Woodlands. Lake Tana and the Ethiopian Highlands are important freshwater ecoregions.

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